By C. G. Lyons, S. McLintock, Nora H. Lumb
A Concise Text-Book of natural Chemistry is a convenient advisor for chemistry scholars getting ready for complex point certificate. the character of natural chemistry, in comparison with that of inorganic chemistry, is largely the chemistry of carbon. The booklet makes a speciality of the preparations and alterations of the atoms contained in the carbon molecules. The molecular formulation of natural compounds are accordingly studied, together with alkanes and their derivatives referred to as aliphatic or fatty acids, in addition to the hydrocarbons of the benzene sequence and derivatives referred to as the fragrant compounds. The aliphatic amines as derivatives of ammonia as a result of the substitution of the hydrogen atoms by way of alkyl teams are defined. The formulation for methane, even if at the present is handy for normal reasons, is proven to be now not a real consultant of the particular association within which 4 H radicals are grouped round the carbon atom. Castor oil, linseed, and different drying oils also are tested by way of their glyceride (of different lengthy chain unsaturated acids) content material. Carbohydrates, divided as monosaccharides, polysaccharides, and glycosides, are mentioned as to their empirical composition. the various equipment and reagents for synthesizing natural compounds are defined, utilizing the easy aliphatic natural compounds for instance. The fragrant sequence of natural compounds, akin to the benzene sequence of hydrocarbons, and the fragrant sulfonic acids, phenols, and ethers are then analyzed. This e-book is appropriate for college students of natural chemistry and for these getting ready for exams within the basic certificates of schooling and for the standard nationwide certificates. Readers relating to agricultural, clinical, pharmaceutical, and technological and technical classes can locate this advisor appropriate.
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The alkyl halides are converted to amines by reaction with ammonia. NH3 + CH3I = CH3NH2 + HI (-> NH4I) Methylamine CH3NH2 + CH3I = (CH3)2NH + C H 3 I = C H 3 I + (CH3)3N = ( C H 3 ) 2 N H + HI Dimethylamine ( C H 3 ) 3 N + HI Trimethylamine (CH3)4NI Tetramethylammonium iodide (6) Formation of nitriles. The halogen atom of the alkyl halide may be replaced by the nitrile (or cyanide) radical by reaction with potassium cyanide. CH3I + KCN - C H 3 C N + KI Methyl cyanide or acetonitrile This reaction is important because the product may be converted into an organic acid by hydrolysis.
Acrolein, an unsaturated aldehyde, which has a characteristic smell and lachrymatory action, is formed. H H-- c — I h CHO 1 i H-- C — O H [ CH 1 ] Ú H- -C—pH Η ' 2H,0 CHa Acrolein (2) Glycerol reacts with oxahc acid to yield either formic acid or allyl alcohol (the alcohol corresponding to the unsaturated aldehyde, acrolein). The first product of the reaction between oxahc acid and glycerol is the mono-ester (glyceryl monoxalate). COOH ¿ OOH + CH2OH CHOH HOCOC00CH2 = C H O H + H2O CHoOH CH2OH This substance loses carbon dioxide on heating, and is transformed into the monoglyceryl ester of formic acid (often called monoformin).
THE ALIPHATIC ALCOHOLS A N D E T H E R S 53 COOH CH2OH Glycollic acid CH2OH CH2OH Glycol CHO ^ \ CH2OH COOH \ ' H O Glycollic aldehydes^ Glyoxalic acid COOH COOH Oxalic acid CHO Glyoxal Correspondingly, glycol reacts with gaseous hydrogen chloride to yield ethylene chlorohydrin or ethylene dichloride. CH2OH CH2CI CH2CI CH2OH CH2OH CH2CI Glycol Ethylene chlorohydrin Ethylene dichloride Due to the presence of two primary alcohol groupings in the same molecule, the glycols yield internal anhydrides by the elimination of water between the two hydroxyl groups.