By T. V. N. (Vid) Persaud, Marios Loukas, R. Shane Tubbs
Many advances in drugs and surgical procedure could be at once associated with advancements in realizing the constitution and serve as of the human physique. in the course of the 16th century, the learn of human anatomy turned an aim self-discipline, in line with direct remark and medical rules. no longer unusually, the examine of human anatomy has stepped forward to its common attractiveness and popularity as a systematic self-discipline, crucial for the perform of recent drugs. This revised and improved version offers anatomy from antiquity to the fashionable instances. during this publication, the authors current many students and lecturers; the time classes, areas, and effect in their paintings; controversies in anatomy; and advances within the self-discipline. those subject matters run the gamut from early pioneers within the artwork to the advance of suggestions that experience propelled the learn of anatomy to its present country. The authors have tried to provide the massive photo concerning the old anatomists and routine that experience formed our present realizing of what we now name clinical anatomy. This superbly illustrated variation spans approximately 4 centuries of clinical historical past. It was once a interval of striking achievements within which many nice scientific personalities lived, made very important anatomical discoveries, and produced amazing treatises. With the sheer quantity of ancient anatomy literature to be had, the authors a just a little eclectic and selective direction in providing the main major fabric during this paintings. As even now guy keeps to profit in regards to the constitution of his physique with new and noninvasive applied sciences reminiscent of MRI, uncovering elements of the human anatomy by no means obvious prior to, the research of the heritage of anatomy consequently keeps along the examine of anatomy as a systematic self-discipline with out noticeable finish
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Extra resources for A history of human anatomy
Such a hypothesis undoubtedly established the central role of the heart as part of the vascular system. It was the organ that distributed the “pneuma,” (Greek: πνεῦμα, breath) the intangible life force that was more than both soul and life, throughout the body; air was the cosmic equivalent of the lifesoul of man which he summarized as follows: “As our soul, being air, sustains us, so pneuma and air pervade the whole world ” (West, 2011). Empedocles postulated several theories of embryological (Wilford, 1968) and physiological interests (O’Brien, 1970).
Whereas the hollow organs and viscera were Yang (light, moist, and active), the solid ones were considered to be Yin (dark, dry, and passive). Diseases resulting from external forces are Yang and those from internal forces are Yin. The legendary emperor Shen Nong is regarded as the father of agriculture and herbal medicine. Not only is he credited with the discovery of the plow, but also with the compilation of the first materia medica, the Ben Cao or the great herbal. In three volumes, Emperor Shen Nong listed 365 drugs and their therapeutic benefits.
208– 235), dissection of the human body was not carried out although there is evidence that this might have been sporadically performed up to the beginning of the second century of the Christian era (Fig. 30).