Addison Wesley Inside The C Plus Plus Object Model

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It is that given foo()'s declaration, the temporary object is first correctly initialized with the class X copy constructor and then is bitwise copied into the local instance of x0! Oh, bother. The declaration of foo() therefore must also be transformed, with the formal argument from an object changed to a reference of class X as follows: void foo( X& x0 ); Were class X to declare a destructor, that destructor would be invoked on the temporary object following the call of foo(). An alternative implementation is to copy construct the actual argument directly onto its place within the function's activation record on the program stack.

At least in the case of a synthesized copy constructor, the possibility of program side effects is nil and the optimization would seem to make good sense. What about in the case of a copy constructor explicitly provided by the class designer? (This is actually a rather contentious issue. ) To summarize: We have looked at the four conditions under which bitwise copy semantics do not hold for a class and the default copy constructor, if undeclared, is considered nontrivial. Under these conditions, the compiler, in the absence of a declared copy constructor, must synthesize a copy constructor in order to correctly implement the initialization of one class object with another.

This is accomplished by the compiler. It inserts code within each constructor, invoking the associated default constructors for each member in the order of member declaration. This code is inserted just prior to the explicitly supplied user code. For example, say we have the following three classes: class Dopey { public: Dopey(); ... }; class Sneezy { public: Sneezy( int ); Sneezy(); ... }; class Bashful { public: Bashful() ... }; and a containing class Snow_White: class Snow_White { public: Dopey dopey; Sneezy sneezy; Bashful bashful; // ...

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