Adsorption and Aggregation of Surfactants in Solution by K.L. Mittal, Dinesh O. Shah

By K.L. Mittal, Dinesh O. Shah

Investigates the function and dynamics of surfactants and their answer houses. deals the most recent examine and advancements within the realizing of surfactant habit in ideas.

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The design of the process is such that the oil bank maintains 18 Shah and Moudgil FIG. 15 The transition from lower- to middle- to upper-phase microemulsions can be brought about by the addition of salts or by varying other parameters. The transition from lower to middle to upper phase (I → m → u) occurs by (1) increasing salinity, (2) decreasing oil chain length, (3) increasing alcohol concentration (C4, C5, C6), (4) decreasing temperature (for ionic surfactants), (5) increasing total surfactant concentration (for high-molecular-weight anionic surfactants), (6) increasing brine/ oil ratio (for high-molecular-weight anionic surfactants), (7) increasing surfactant solution/oil ratio (for high-molecular-weight anionic surfactants), and (8) increasing molecular weight of surfactant.

STABILIZATION OF CHEMICAL–MECHANICAL POLISHING SLURRIES UTILIZING SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS Chemical–mechanical polishing (CMP) is a widely used technique in microelectronic device manufacturing to achieve multilevel metallization (Fig. 27). In the CMP process, the wafer surface (on which the microelectronic devices are built) is planarized by using a polymeric pad and a slurry com- 34 Shah and Moudgil FIG. 27 (Top) Schematic representation of chemical–mechanical polishing (CMP) process. ) (Bottom) Review of tungsten CMP: (a) silica (interlayer dielectric) is etched, (b) tungsten is deposited onto silica ILD, and (c) CMP is applied to remove excessive tungsten layer and other levels are built on this level (multilevel metallization).

20 that SiO2, MoO3, and V2O5 strongly adsorb PEO whereas oxides with pzc greater than that of silica, such as TiO2, Fe2O3, Al2O3, and MgO, did not exhibit significant adsorption of PEO. 5. This suggests that the strength of Bro¨nsted acid sites (higher ability to donate protons), as determined by the surface molecular architecture, also influences the adsorption process. It was also shown that the nature and energetics of the surface sites could be modified by surface modification techniques such as calcination and rehydroxylation [68], Upon calcination of a silica surface to 800ЊC, the number of isolated surface hydroxyl groups [determined from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy] and three-membered silicate rings (determined from Raman spectroscopy) increased, resulting in higher surface acidity [determined from solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy using triethyl phosphine oxide probe].

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