Advances in Applied Microbiology, Vol. 31 by Allen I. Laskin (Eds.)

By Allen I. Laskin (Eds.)

Meant for researchers in utilized microbiology and environmental engineers, this publication covers such subject matters as environmental evaluation of biotechnological methods and microbial alterations of haloaromatic and haloaliphatic compounds.

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E. THE BUTANOLFERMENTATIONS Following the renewed interest in developing microbial systems for bioconversion of biomass to commodity chemicals, there has been a flurry of new physiological and biochemical research activity centered upon the butanol-forming saccharolytic clostridia. This revival is largely due to two extrinsic factors. S. GENETICS AND BIOCHEMISTRY OF Clostridium 25 and Canada early in this century. S. alone in 1982 (Ofice of Technology Assessment, 1984). Indeed, there is today a great deal of developmental research activity aimed at butanol, acetone, and isopropanol production, mostly employing the organisms C .

A number of these plasmids carrying antibiotic resistance markers, as well as other characters, such as caseinase activity and bacteriocin production, have been identified, isolated, and sized (Table V). C . dgficile, another human pathogen, causes a severe illness, antibioticassociated pseudomembraneous enterocolitis. These organisms contain a number of plasmids of various sizes that have been identified and probably carry antibiotic-resistance markers (Table V). Recently, strains of C . , 1984).

Thermohydrosulfuricum, fermenting xylose in a nitrogen-limited chemostat, was shown to produce more lactate and less ethanol and acetate with increasing dilution rate (Ng and Zeikus, 1982); and C. saccharolyticum, fermenting sugars in limiting amounts of yeast extract in the medium, produced relatively more lactate (Murray and Khan, 198313). The biochemical basis for these observations has not been investigated. All three of these ethanol-producing clostridia are of great interest as candidates for use in future bioconversion processes.

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