By Ron Field
The yankee Civil conflict observed a huge improvement within the use of box fortifications, the results of the sensible program of antebellum West-Point instructing, and the lethal effect of rifled infantry guns and artillery. either the Federal and accomplice armies started to boost way more refined platforms of box fortification, and the bigger box works and fortifications surrounding Washington, DC and Richmond, VA have been redesigned and rebuilt a number of occasions. This quantity explores the function of land and box fortifications within the japanese and overland campaigns of the Civil struggle among 1861 and 1865. specific awareness is dedicated to the nine-month siege of Petersburg, the place way of life in the redoubts, lunettes, redans, bomb-proofs, trenches and rifle pits is vividly defined.
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Extra info for American Civil War Fortifications Land and Field Fortifications
According to the annual defense guidance document, our fundamental national security objective is to deter conflict. This is clearly a psychological phenomenon because it occurs in the mind of a potential enemy. When an enemy perceives that it would be too costly for him to attack or that he would probably lose if he started a war, then he elects not to attack and conflict has been deterred . His mental decision, based upon his perception of our capabilities and resolve, is the key element in the process of deterrence .
Military PSYOP in support of this fundamental defense objective, then, should seek to clarify and focus this perception. 18 WALKER Military PSYOP programs designed to enhance deterrence should include those that support arms control talks as well as those that clarify and explain national aims for strategic nuclear force posture. Efforts to clearly describe our policies for peaceful military uses of space and the strategic defense initiative (SDI) can readily be listed as contributing to deterrence .
The area of strategic metals provides a good example. Africa was the most visible battlefield in this subtle economic struggle, having as it does an abundance of these resources easily and economically available. The US is about 10 percent self-sufficient (within our borders) in supplies of this type; the USSR was about 90 percent self-sufficient. Metals such as chromium, cobalt, zirconium, titanium, and tantalum are essential to any modern high-technology industrial society. The military 20 WALKER dimension is obvious from the extent to which defense systems depend on technology .