By Munenori Takehara, Hideo Hirohara (auth.), Yoshimitsu Hamano (eds.)
Microorganisms are able to generating a wide selection of biopolymers. Homopolymer peptides, that are made from just a unmarried form of amino acid, are a long way much less ubiquitous. the one amino-acid homopolymers identified to happen in nature are provided during this quantity. Poly-epsilon-L-lysine is a polycationic peptide and indicates antimicrobial job opposed to a large spectrum of microorganisms. it's either secure and biodegradable and is for that reason used as a nutrients preservative in different nations. furthermore, there was nice curiosity in clinical and different purposes of poly-lysine and its derivatives. by contrast, poly-gamma-glutamic acid is an strange anionic polypeptide. it's also water soluble, biodegradable, suitable for eating, non-toxic and non-immunogenic and will be chemically converted to introduce numerous medicines. those positive aspects are very invaluable for pharmaceutical and biomedical purposes. Poly-glutamic acid can be a hugely beautiful as nutrition ingredient.
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Extra resources for Amino-Acid Homopolymers Occurring in Nature
HS 4’-PP H2N (1) A-domain COOH (1319) C1 T 616 676 TM1 TM2 638 654 C2 852 911 TM3 TM4 874 889 C3 1087 1148 TM5 TM6 1109 1126 Fig. 7 Domain architecture of Pls. The A-, T-, six TM-domains, and three tandem domains (C1-, C2-, and C3-domain) are shown schematically. The numbers on Pls are the amino-acid residue numbers 34 Y. 4 Catalytic Mechanism of Pls Yamanaka et al. explored the catalytic mechanism of the Pls using an ATP–PPi exchange assay (Yamanaka et al. 2008). They observed Pls-mediated adenylation of L-lysine, but not any other proteinogenic amino acid (Fig.
42 Abstract Streptomyces albulus NBRC14147 (previously named IFO14147) is known to produce the amino-acid homopolymer antibiotic, poly-e-L-lysine (e-polyL-lysine, e-PL), consisting of 25–35 L-lysine residues with a linkage between the a-carboxyl group and the e-amino group. Because e-PL exhibits antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of microorganisms, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as antiphage activity, and because it is both safe and biodegradable, e-PL has been introduced as a food preservative in Japan, South Korea, Y.
3 PEG-Mediated Transformation of S. albulus CR1 Protoplast with pLAE001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Conjugal Transfer of the oriT-Vector, pLAE003, from E. coli to S. albulus CR1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Construction of a Genetically Engineered Strain of S. albulus CR1 for e-PL Overproduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .