By Clement A. Ogaja
Utilized GPS for Engineers and undertaking Managers introduces civil engineers particularly those people who are no longer already authorized surveyors to the basic ideas of world positioning expertise (GPS). This booklet covers GPS fundamentals, together with positioning and measuring ideas, strategies to enhance accuracy, and an research of reasonably cheap as opposed to high-precision platforms. next chapters clarify the issues for choosing and enforcing a GPS approach after which show particular functions of GPS in various engineering events, together with tracking the overall healthiness of buildings, robotics and computing device keep watch over, maritime operations, fabric monitoring in huge building websites, website keep an eye on and layout, and tracking geohazards. This booklet should be necessary for all civil engineers attracted to profiting from using GPS applied sciences.
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Additional info for Applied GPS for Engineers and Project Managers
The “Ranging Methods” section below discusses the methods by which the satellite-receiver ranges (pseudoranges) are determined. First, let’s consider how the satellite positions are determined in the Cartesian coordinate system. Satellite Positions In order to determine the geometric ranges from the satellites to the receiver (En. 2-5), the satellite position at the time of transmission of the GPS signal has to be known. The satellite almanac and ephemeris data are needed for this purpose. The almanac data provide only a rough satellite position; ephemeris data are needed to determine the exact position.
These models can subsequently be applied to mitigate the effect of antenna phase variations. It is, however, recommended that for high-precision applications (discussed in detail in Chapter 5),care be taken not to mix antenna types or to swap antennas between sites and receivers during data collection. 45 APPLIED GPS FOR ENGINEERS AND PROJECT MANAGERS 46 Receiver Noise The magnitude of the receiver noise is dependent on parameters such as the signal-to-noise ratio and tracking bandwidth. According to a rule of thumb for classic receivers, the measurement noise is approximately 1% of the signal wavelength.
39 APPLIED GPS FOR ENGINEERS AND PROJECT MANAGERS 40 observed for each satellite, thousands of position solutions are possible. But with enough data it is possible to demonstrate one most-probable solution by statistical methods. The essence of centimeter-level GPS positioning is to acquire enough data sets (or epochs) to resolve the cycle ambiguities. Once the cycle ambiguities are resolved for a station, the lock may be maintained by uninterrupted observation. For each data epoch, a geodetic-grade receiver measures and records the carrier cycle count for each satellite on L1, L2, and L5; the relative carrier phase shifts between all satellite signals; and the estimated time of the data epoch.