By The Institution of Structural Engineers
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Extra resources for Appraisal of existing structures
29 BS 8100-1: 1986: Lattice towers and masts. Part 1: Code of practice for loading. 30 BS 6399-3: 1988: Loading for buildings. Part 3: Code of practice for imposed roof loads. 42 Welding Institute. Proceedings of conference on fatigue in welded structures, Cambridge, July 1970. 43 BS 8004: 1986: Code of practice for foundations. 44 Building Research Station. Soils and foundations: I. BRS Digest 63. 45 Building Research Station. Soils and foundations: 2. BRS Digest 64. 46 Building Research Station.
Design calculations have to include an allowance for these uncertainties. Partial safety factors are introduced to take account of the above factors. However, once a structure has been built, some of the uncertainty present at the design stage has been removed. The strength of the materials and their variability can be assessed on site and it may therefore be possible to adjust the safety factors based on the in situ assessments of the materials. There are two alternative strategies for dealing with variability.
G. spalling of concrete or masonry at high level, fragmentation of asbestos insulation or cladding and cracks due to creep deformation of components allowing the transmission of fire and gases. When assessing structural safety or serviceability, the data obtained from a structure should be viewed critically against the following criteria: ––Do the data enable possible performance failure mechanisms to be identified and assessed? ––Are the data reliable in themselves? ––How sensitive is the assessment of the performance failure mechanism to the accuracy of the data?