By Ho-Won Jeong (eds.)
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Extra info for Approaches to Peacebuilding
The equation should rather be made between the republican form 48 Introduction of government and perpetual peace, as elaborated in Kantian philosophy, that is, the pre-eminence of the rule of law and of the principle of individual liberty. Kant remained sceptical, however, about the rule of majority consent, and according to S. Chan (1997, p. 64), he would not have considered himself a 'democrat' if that rule is taken to mean respect for popular wilL 31. See the empirical studies by J. Chopra (1996, pp.
31-48) and V. P. Gagnon (1994-95, pp. 331-367). 35. Mohammed Ayoub notes that in European history 'democracy emerged as the final stage of the state-building process' (and not the first), an observation which, in his view, is still more pertinent for the Third World. See C. Crocker and F. Hampson ( 1996). 36. On this subject, the study of N. Ball and T. Halevy (1996) is prescient. 37. The thesis is also supported by International Centre for Peace Initiatives (1997, pp. 60-70). A still more provocative (and questionable) thesis is argued by Robert Kaplan, already famous for his vision of 'coming anarchy'.
David and A. Benessaieh (1997, pp. 227-254). 14. The field of security is rife with ' institutionalist liberals'. A concise introduction is provided by R. Keohane and L. Martin ( 1995, pp. 39-51 ). See the excellent review by M. Barnett (1997); also C. ) (1995). 15. According to William Robinson's Gramscian analysis, liberal internationalism takes the form of 'polyarchic' hegemony (that is, decisions are made by small competing elites) which legitimise the American economic agenda (1996, pp. 457).